A database is an organized collection of related data, typically stored and accessed electronically, relevant to a given enterprise. The data in databases are usually controlled by a database management system (DBMS) and together the two are generally referred to as the database system.
Modern databases are typically found in purely digital formats. These are the stores of data accessible by websites, enterprise applications, and even video games. There is no characteristic constraint dictating that databases must be digital. Examples of non-digital databases include paper phonebooks, property records, and even grocery lists.
Databases are regarded as an advance upon earlier computer data storage technologies, known as file processing systems (FPS), that relied on the utilities of the underlying operating system. These were file-based systems that had many shortcomings and relied on application protocols to manage data integrity.