Greeks Symbols in Code, Science and History (Cool Facts included!)

Maybe you've seen mysterious characters gracing the pages of your textbook. Maybe you've heard of Pi -- but never its many companions. Here we detail the full gamut of the Greek alphabet and how these historic symbols are used in modern fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.
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Greek symbols are the basis of some of the most evolved linguistic features of the human race. In the past, they forged modern concepts through their use in philosophy and the arts. Today, they serve as powerful signatories in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

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Greek Symbols are used throughout the sciences to denote a myriad of concepts. While their specific meanings vary in domain-center ways — their use to signify importance is universal. Here we detail the meaning of each character in the Greek alphabet along with examples of how it is used in various fields.

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Unicode Chars for Copy/Paste:


Copy any of the symbols above to use Alpha in your text or code.

You can also type Alpha in Word or Excel by setting your Numpad Lock is ON, and pressing down the Alt key and type 913 (uppercase) or 945 (lowercase) on your Numpad.

Alpha is the first letter in the Greek alphabet, tracing back its origins to the Phoenician aleph character. This symbol signifies the idea of arising anew or above the rest, as its written form resembles a sunrise.

In the Greek numerical system, Alpha has a value of 1. To this day, it’s one of the most commonly used symbols in Math, Physics, Natural Sciences, and Finance to represent different variables and concepts.

Here are some of the ways this symbol is used in different contexts and disciplines:

Software Engineering and Programing

In Python, isalpha() is a built-in method used for string handling. As we mentioned in our piece on Python Data Types, strings represent textual data as immutable sequences of characters. The isalpha() method lets you check if every character within a string is alphabetical, returning Trud and False values, respectively.

Alpha, in software development, represents an exploratory phase where features are subject to stay, change, or be removed depending on the developer’s intent and needs. An Alpha stage also allows developers to identify and fix bugs that negatively impact the software’s performance.

Data Science

In Data Science and Statistics, Alpha represents the significance of a hypothesis test, a method that lets us decide if the data at our disposal is sufficient to support a given hypothesis.

Since this type of statistical test is based on probabilities, two types of errors are possible: a type I and a type II error. Alpha reveals the likelihood of a Type-1 error when applying the formula: probability = 1−α


In Financial Analysis, Alpha stands as a performance metric for investments. For instance, a negative alpha number reflects an underperforming investment compared to the market average.


Alpha also stands for angular acceleration (the rate at which an object’s angular velocity changes when making a circular motion). In Military Aviation and fluid dynamics, Alpha refers to the angle of attack of an aircraft, a measure of how steep a plane’s nose dives when heading towards its target.


Alpha also refers to the thermal expansion coefficient, which reflects how much an object changes its shape, area, volume, and density when its temperature changes.


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Unicode Chars for Copy/Paste:


Copy any of the symbols above to use Beta in your text or code. 

You can also type Beta in Word or Excel by setting your Numpad Lock is ON, and pressing down the Alt key and type 914 (uppercase) or 946 (lowercase) on your Numpad.

Beta is the second letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numerical value of 2, derived from the Phoenician letter beth. For the ancient Greeks, this symbol refers to the basics or the basis of things, so its orthography (drawn shape) resembles the base of a human spine.

Beta is used throughout the sciences as a variable, constant, and software release categorization. The following representations of Beta are common in various fields:

Software Engineering and Programing

Beta represents the second phase of software development. In this stage, the software reflects the features outlined in requirements gathering but still has a few bugs here and there. Developers often conduct various stress tests to polish their products further.

Data Science

Beta represents the slope in regression analysis. It’s also used to signal type 2 errors in general statistics.


Beta measures the relationship between the return of an asset and the return of the market, taking into account covariance and variance.


The Beta symbol is most notably used in organic Chemistry to denote the second attached carbon molecule to a compound.


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Unicode Chars for Copy/Paste:


Copy any of the symbols above to use Gamma in your text or code.

You can also type Gamma in Word or Excel by setting your Numpad Lock ON, pressing down the Alt key, and typing 915 (uppercase) or 947 (lowercase) on your Numpad.

Gamma is the third letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numerical value of 3. For the ancient Greeks, this letter means generative and creative, so both its uppercase and lowercase symbols suggest an offshoot from a stem, like a sprout.

Software Engineering and Programing

R Programming Language is an open-source programming language popularly used in Data Science. With this Data Science favorite, you can efficiently calculate Gamma distributions and plot precise value distributions with the dgamma(), pgamma(), qgamma(), and rgamma() R functions.


Gamma encoding of images is used to optimize the usage of bits when encoding and transporting images, making the most of our non-linear perception of light and color. Gamma encoding of images is used to optimize the usage of bits when encoding and transporting images. Gamma encoding divides or multiples the image file’s gamma value, making dark regions more luminous and vice versa (the same process occurs whenever you change the gamma value on a monitor!).


Gamma is one of the Four Metrics (also known as “The Greeks”) in stock options risk assessment. Gamma is a metric for measuring the changes in Delta (an asset’s price) over time. Gamma becomes useful for trades since it allows investors to see the rate at which an asset’s value changes, potential price movements, and their effect on an option’s value and premium.


Gamma is used as the symbol that represents photons. In nuclear Physics, the lowercase character of this letter also indicates gamma radiation. In a related field such as Neuroscience, the fastest waves of our brain’s activity are known as gamma waves, and they mainly occur when you’re highly alert and conscious.


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Unicode Chars for Copy/Paste:

Copy any of the symbols above to use Delta in your text or code.

You can also type Delta in Word or Excel by setting your Numpad Lock ON, pressing down the Alt key, and typing 916 (uppercase) or 948 (lowercase) on your Numpad.

The Delta symbol means directed-trajectory (notice that the letter’s shape resembles an arrowhead). Philosophically, Delta refers to setting a direction in pursuit of a goal. This idea is transported to the Greek ancient medical notion of Diagnosis, which meant “establishing a path” the patient could follow in hopes of recovery.


Delta is the fourth letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numerical value of 4 (curiously enough, its form is the origin of this number’s present-day character). Mathematicians are fond of Greek letters, often using an uppercase Delta to symbolize change.

When it comes to a pair of numbers, Delta signifies their difference, quantified by subtracting an initial value from a latter one. Similarly, in single-variable calculus, Delta allows us to graph how a Mathematical function changes while processing a set of x values.

Software Engineering and Programing

Delta is one of the most famous Greek symbols in programming. In Python, You can calculate (from an initial date) any future date after a specific number of years (with nanosecond precision) by using the datetime.timedelta() function.

On another note, Elias Delta is a universal system for encoding positive integers developed by Peter Elias. This code is also one of the lossless compression techniques for characters in a document, based on how frequently these appear in the latter.

Data Science

Presently, Neo4j is one of the best Java-based, open-source graph database management systems in the IoT. This NoSQL system uses a path-finding algorithm known as Delta-Stepping, allowing Data Scientists to store data contained in multiple connections.

Thanks to Delta-Stepping, Neo4j makes it easy for users to manipulate relational data and large sets of distributed data by computing the shortest paths between a source node and all reachable nodes.


Velocity and Acceleration are both recognizable metrics in Physics. Each uses a Delta symbol to convey the change rate: The first measuring distance covered in time, and the other specifies how that same velocity changes in a given time window.


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Unicode Chars for Copy/Paste:


Copy any of the symbols above to use Epsilon in your text or code.

You can also type Epsilon in Word or Excel by setting your Numpad Lock ON, pressing down the Alt key, and typing 917 (uppercase) or 949 (lowercase) on your Numpad.

Epsilon is the fifth letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numerical value of 5. For the ancient Greeks, Epsilon refers to the pure and concentrated essence of a substance (or what nowadays is understood as quintessence).

It’s common for scientific disciplines to use it as a metric with a unique value for each material, reflecting the latter’s distinct properties in a practical, quantifiable manner. Plutarch himself explains it as a symbol for “being throughout all eternity,” a timeless distinction that defines any particular thing, being, or object from one another based on their nature.

Data Science

Differential Privacy (DP) is a Data Science model (used in machine learning analysis) designed to protect sensitive information, such as users’ personal information and real-time location, against privacy attacks.

The DP algorithm uses two metrics to distinguish and compare how much private information and general information comes off as output after input and analysis. One of these quantities is Epsilon (also known as the ε-differential privacy), which measures the privacy loss at a differential change in data whenever an entry is added or removed. Suffice to say that the smaller Epsilon is, the better privacy protection you get.


Epsilon is also part of the Greeks in Finance Math. Even though it’s a secondary metric compared to the Main Four Greeks, it allows traders to get a more in-depth risk profile when analyzing an option’s position. In economics, Epsilon symbolizes elasticities to measure how two market variables affect one another. A typical example of this would be the price elasticity of demand, which tells us how the price of a product can cause its demand to increase or decrease.


The lower-case epsilon symbol refers to an arbitrarily small positive Real number, but it’s also common to see it as a variable for inner angles and represent error bounds when calculating the limit of a function.


In electromagnetism, Epsilon refers to the absolute permittivity of a given material. The lower the Epsilon value for this material, the more energy it can store.


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Unicode Chars for Copy/Paste:


Copy any of the symbols above to use Zeta in your text or code. 

You can also type Zeta in Word or Excel by setting your Numpad Lock ON, pressing down the Alt key, and typing 918 (uppercase) or 950 (lowercase) on your Numpad.

Zeta is the sixth letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numerical value of 6. For the ancient Greeks, the letter Z means spark (be it of fire or life), which is why the shape of this symbol resembles lightning, also interpreted as a spark on a divine/ religious scale. Come to think of it, even the letter Z (which originates from Zeta) phonetically sounds like a spark!

Software Engineering and Programing

Python is known for its uncanny versatility, allowing countless open-source libraries to support code conveniently and efficiently. Within Machine Learning, the TensorFlow library includes the zeta function, tensorflow.Math.zeta(), allowing developers to compute the Hurwitz zeta function into their code and operate complex numbers.

Data Science

Data Science is all about revealing actionable insights from large quantities of collected information. Today’s need for more comprehensive units of measurements (as a result of the ever-increasing volumes of data) lead to the creation of the term zettabyte. In this context, the Zeta symbol equates to 1 sextillion bytes. In other words, one zettabyte approximately equals one thousand exabytes or one billion terabytes!


The Zeta Model is a Mathematical model that estimates the chances of a public company going bankrupt within two years. This model returns a single number (known as the z-score or zeta score). The higher it is, the more likely a company is to go bankrupt.


The Z-axis transforms your typical 2-D cartesian plane into the graphical representation of an R3 (tridimensional) space, providing a reference commonly associated with depth.


When it comes to oscillation, Zeta refers to the damping ratio, quantifying how much a spring constrains/expands or how much a building sways while facing wind currents. Zeta’s a valuable parameter that helps us describe movement behaviors and energy dissipation in structures.


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Unicode Chars for Copy/Paste:


Copy any of the symbols above to use Eta in your text or code. 

You can also type Eta in Word or Excel by setting your Numpad Lock ON, pressing down the Alt key, and typing 919 (uppercase) or 951 (lowercase) on your Numpad.

Eta is the seventh letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numerical value of 7. For the ancient Greeks, the letter H means center. The shape of the letter H is two vertical lines with a horizontal line connecting them at the center, presenting two sides in relative balance.

Software Engineering and Programing

Eta is a tuning parameter (known as the learning rate in machine learning), which can be set for an optimization task. In practical terms, eta is the shrinkage applied to each computational step, so a model reaches a perfect bias/variance tradeoff (also known as optimum).

Since Eta determines the step size at each iteration while moving toward a minimum of a loss function, increasing eta makes computation faster (reducing the number of input rounds a model requires) but making it harder to reach the model’s optimum.

On the other hand, decreasing eta will make the model computations slower (more rounds of input needed), making it easier for a machine learning model to reach its optimum.


Paying homage to the symbol’s ancient meaning, Eta is often used in geometry to signify 90-degree angles (also known as right angles), conveying the perpendicular intersection between a horizontal and a vertical line, just like the letter H is drawn!


Eta is intimately related to a system’s ability to perform an action or produce something while using the least amount of material, energy, effort, money, and time. In applied Physics, Eta refers to the ratio between the functional output of an energy conversion machine and the input in energy terms.


The viscosity of a fluid is a measure of its resistance to deformation at a given rate. For instance (and usually for liquids), Eta corresponds to the informal concept of “thickness.”


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Unicode Chars for Copy/Paste:


Copy any of the symbols above to use Theta in your text or code. 

You can also type Theta in Word or Excel by setting your Numpad Lock ON, pressing down the Alt key, and typing 920 (uppercase) or 952 (lowercase) on your Numpad.

Theta is the eighth letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numerical value of 8. The letter Theta means divine, its symbol representing the totality of everything in existence. In ancient Greece, this letter was associated with theater and theology as such terms were often preceded by this letter.

Software Engineering and Programing

Big Theta notation is used to see how well an algorithm does performance-wise. This function provides the average time complexity of an algorithm, quantifying the amount of time it needs to operate, averaged over all possible inputs. Since it’s an average, we can also determine the algorithm’s worst and best-case running time, each of these being the upper and lower asymptotic bounds of the Big Theta notation.


One of the main Greeks of financial Math, Theta, refers to the rate of decline in the value of an option. Theta is a risk metric for option buyers, especially since options are only exercisable for a certain period of time.


In geometry, Theta is often used to represent a plane angle, which results from two straight lines crossing with one another or by two planes intersecting. Nevertheless, its most commonly seen as the default angle variable of trigonometric functions such as sine, cosine, and tangent.


In genetics, Theta represents the Watterson estimator, an elegant Mathematical method for measuring a population mutation rate, describing its genetic diversity.


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Unicode Chars for Copy/Paste:


Copy any of the symbols above to use Iota in your text or code. 

You can also type Iota in Word or Excel by setting your Numpad Lock ON, pressing down the Alt key, and typing 921 (uppercase) or 953 (lowercase) on your Numpad.

Iota is the ninth letter of the Greek alphabet and has a numerical value of 9. Iota is represented as a vertical vector, referring to anything set upright, such as a mast or beam. This symbol was often associated with divine power and the invisible force that directs plants upward towards the sun.

Iota is also the smallest letter of the Greek alphabet, representing the smallest possible something. Even today, we may occasionally hear some say, “He hasn’t changed one iota since we left Newark!”

Software Engineering and Programing

Some programming languages use Iota to represent and generate an array of consecutive integers. In C++, the function iota() assigns continuous values to an array by entering three arguments: the array name, size, and the starting number.

The function std:iota also produces a sequence of consecutive numbers within a previously set start and end value. Both functions create orderly sequences of numbers that increase or decrease by 1 without cluttering your code.


Iota is the symbol of the imaginary unit (i^2 = −1), giving way to a whole subset of complex numbers.


Iota is known as the ninth element in a series. For instance, the ninth atom from an organic compound has the iota symbol assigned to it.


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Unicode Chars for Copy/Paste:


Copy any of the symbols above to use Kappa in your text or code. 

You can also type Kappa in Word or Excel by setting your Numpad Lock ON, pressing down the Alt key, and typing 922 (uppercase) or 954 (lowercase) on your Numpad.

For the ancient Greeks, the letter K means core which implies something that emerges from the core or center. In many ways, it is synonymous with the word “seed.” The symbol’s shape even resembles a sprouting seed that extends both upward and downward from its core, just like the legs of a letter K emerge from the center of its initial stroke.

Data Science

In machine learning, Cohens Kappa can be implemented in Python to tell us how much better the tested classifier is compared to the classifier that guesses randomly based on the frequency of each class. In other words, with Cohens Kappa, you can assess the agreement between two raters and even assess the performance of a classification model.


Kappa, also called vega, is one of the four primary Greek risk measures. Volatility accounts for recent changes in price, historical changes in price, and future price moves. For an option, volatility is intended to capture the amount and speed the price moves up and down. Kappa measures how an option contract’s price sensitivity changes the underlying asset’s volatility.


Kappa is used as the symbol for curvature, describing how much a curve’s direction changes over a small distance of travel at any point of such curve. This parameter is crucial for engineers when designing roads, streets, and highways, making it easier and safer for drivers to traverse large distances without taking on tough-to-maneuver exits and curves.

Physics and Chemistry

Kappa is used as the symbol for thermal conductivity, a material’s unique constant that quantifies its ability to conduct heat. Depending on this value (and other calculations where this Kappa value plays a fundamental role), engineers can assess which materials are best suited to isolate or pass on the heat in different scenarios.


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Unicode Chars for Copy/Paste:


Copy any of the symbols above to use Lambda in your text or code. 

You can also type Lambda in Word or Excel by setting your Numpad Lock ON, pressing down the Alt key, and typing 923 (uppercase) or 955 (lowercase) on your Numpad.

For the ancient Greeks, Lambda was a symbol associated with Logos (the true meaning or concept behind a name). The shape of Lambda is an upward pointing arrow without a baseline, suggesting freedom from gravity or being unbound by the constrictions of a physical plane.

Software Engineering and Programing

Like the def keyword is used to define a standard function in Python, Lambda defines an anonymous function, which can have as many arguments as you need but only one expression to be returned.

When manipulating CSV files with Python, Lambda is often used as a key function. You can use it to name parameters without parenthesis, and it does not require you to ask for a return keyword, which can significantly tighten your code.

In Java, lambda expressions express instances of functional interfaces and can be passed around as if it was an object and executed on demand.

Data Science

Lambda functions are especially useful in Data Science since they help you write and test code to process data quickly. Lambda functions are intended as a shorthand for defining functions, allowing you to write concise code in fewer lines.


Lambda is considered one of the “Minor Greeks” in financial literature. This measure is usually found by working with Delta, and it represents an option’s leverage factor.


When measuring electromagnetic radiation, Lambda stands as the wavelength: the spatial period of a periodic wave.


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Unicode Chars for Copy/Paste:


Copy any of the symbols above to use Mu in your text or code. 

You can also type Mu in Word or Excel by setting your Numpad Lock ON, pressing down the Alt key, and typing 924 (uppercase) or 956 (lowercase) on your Numpad.

For the ancient Greeks, Mu means meta: the macro-micro medium, an essential concept that connects the macro and the micro. The macro refers to the overarching concept, the big picture if you may, for instance: Intelligence. On the other hand, the micro realization of that concept or general ideal in individual terms or a specific case: how Intelligence manifests in a sentient being.

For the ancient Greeks, Mu means meta: the macro-micro medium, an essential concept that connects the macro and the micro. The macro refers to an overarching concept (aka the big picture), while the micro is how that concept manifests in a scenario.

If we take intelligence as a macro concept, then every time we code and create apps, we manifest this concept on a micro-level. The Mu, or medium, would be our ability to think and use logic to connect the macro and the micro.

A medium is a mechanism that connects one thing with another, just like Media conveys ideas (in the form of a video) from a source to a recipient. The shape of this symbol intently reveals its meaning: the top (macro) of two verticals are connected in the middle at the bottom in a point (micro).

Software Engineering and Programing

In Python, the pvariance() function calculates the variance of an entire data set or population rather than just a sample. This function uses different parameters such as [data] (iterable numbers) and Returnype (which returns the actual population variance of the values passed as parameters).

Additionally, the pvariance function also considers a Mu value, which allows you to use the mean of a data-set or population without calculating it beforehand.

Data Science

Mu denotes a population mean or expected value within A/B testing. This scientific experimentation approach occurs when one or more content factors in digital communication (web, email, social, etc.) are deliberately changed. The investigator then observes the effects and outcomes for a predetermined period to draw valuable insights.


In statistics, Mu corresponds to the population mean (not to be confused with sample mean), the average of all values in a given population.


Mu refers to the COF (coefficient of friction): the ratio of friction force between two bodies and the force pressing them together. This constant, unique to the surfaces in question, allows us to quantify how energy transforms into heat and sound when two objects rub against each other during their motion.


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Unicode Chars for Copy/Paste:


Copy any of the symbols above to use Nu in your text or code. 

You can also type Nu in Word or Excel by setting your Numpad Lock ON, pressing down the Alt key, and typing 925 (uppercase) or 957 (lowercase) on your Numpad.

The Nu symbol has the same shape as our uppercase letter N. It resembles two converging forces (one upwards and another downwards) on its left and right sides, signifying a tipping point or the prevailing point.

Software Engineering and Programing

Nu is an open-source programming language created by Tim Burks (an American developer who now works for Google on APIs) back in 2007. The creation of Nu came about in the same year as the launch of the first iPhone, and it was designed to be as expressive and concise as possible, enabling developers to create and read code more efficiently.


Vega is not a Greek letter; however, it is denoted by the Greek letter nu (ν), and it’s also one of “The Four Greeks” in Finance. The Greeks are used to assess derivatives and are often referred to as risk measures, hedge parameters, or risk sensitivities. The Nu symbol (referred to as Vega) measures an option’s sensitivity to the underlying asset’s volatility.


Nu is often used in its lowercase form to express Frequency, which refers to the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time. For instance, Nu uses hertz (Hz) as its measuring unit, each Hz equating to the number of cycles covered per second.

Ksi or Xi

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Unicode Chars for Copy/Paste:


Copy any of the symbols above to use Ksi or Xi in your text or code. 

You can also type Ksi or Xi in Word or Excel by setting your Numpad Lock ON, pressing down the Alt key, and typing 926 (uppercase) or 958 (lowercase) on your Numpad.

The Ksi or Xi symbol meant detached-from. The ancient Greeks used this letter as a prefix when referring to a foreigner or anyone not attached to a local tribe or culture.

The origins of the word xenophobe can be traced back to this ancient greek letter, and fans of sci-fi classics such as Alien will probably agree that it’s a fitting term for the famous Xenomorph. Similarly, the ancient Greeks also interpreted Ksi or Xi as “guest” drawing an eerie correlation with how these interstellar monsters spread in the movies.


As the name suggests, graph theory is an area of Mathematics that studies graphs: Mathematical structures used to model pairwise relations between objects. A graph in this context is made up of vertices (also called nodes or points) connected by edges (also called links or lines), and the Ksi or Xi symbol refers to the sum of all degrees in a tree.

Software Engineering and Programing

The GATE CS Exam is conducted for all computer science graduates seeking admission to various programs (PhDs included) to advance their careers. This critical test contains questions on Graph theory, making the Ksi and Xi symbol an essential metric to consider when answering multiple-choice questions regarding nodes.


Ksi or Xi is also known as the damping factor. In the vibrational analysis of oscillation systems, this variable refers to a system’s ability to oscillate towards its equilibrium point as it moves quickly towards it (a condition known as under-damp).


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Unicode Chars for Copy/Paste:


Copy any of the symbols above to use Omicron in your text or code. 

You can also type Omicron in Word or Excel by setting your Numpad Lock ON, pressing down the Alt key, and typing 927 (uppercase) or 959 (lowercase) on your Numpad.

Omicron derives from the Phoenician letter ayin, and its symbol is shaped like a circle, differing from omega in the sense that it has a more significant trace. For the ancient Greeks, Omicron means the entity or whole, serving as the basis for the word obelisk, which refers to an “entity’s basis.” The latter is a hallmark structure of human civilization throughout its history.


Big O notation is a Mathematical notation that describes the limiting behavior of a function when the argument tends towards a particular value or infinity. The term “Big O” originates from the Greek letter Omicron representing a function’s asymptotic growth rate).

Software Engineering and Programing

Similarly, big O notation is used to classify algorithms by how they respond to changes in the size of their input. Generally, the running time of an algorithm grows with the input size.

Data Science

PyOmicron is a workflow generator and processor tool developed by Flrient Robinet that streamlines the automated processing of hundreds of data channels. For instance, our planet’s orbiting satellites and observatories detect cosmic gravitational waves and process a tremendous amount of data with this fantastic tool.


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Unicode Chars for Copy/Paste:


Copy any of the symbols above to use Pi in your text or code. 

You can also type Pi in Word or Excel by setting your Numpad Lock ON, pressing down the Alt key, and typing 928 (uppercase) or 960 (lowercase) on your Numpad.

Like Alpha and Beta, Pi is one of the most used Greek symbols. The shape of this letter resembles a bridge or a connecting platform, revealing a meaning of unifying or “being under the same roof.” Pi is also an iconic letter that represents ancient Greek culture, alluding to traditional Greek architecture for housing and temples (like the front of Athens’s Pantheon).


Pi is most noticeably known as the Archimedes’ constant, the ratio of a circle’s circumference to its diameter. It’s also used to represent a plane, a flat, two-dimensional surface that extends indefinitely.

Software Engineering and Programing

The PI() function in MySQL is used to return the Pi value (in full double-precision value). In C++, you can calculate the value of Π using the acos() or asin() function which returns a numeric value between [-Π, Π].

Likewise, In PHP, the pi() function returns the value of π, but there’s also a constant known as M_PI, which can give you an identical value to that produced by the pi() function, slightly faster.

Data Science

In machine learning, reinforcement learning is an area that focuses on how intelligent agents should take actions in a given environment to maximize the notion of cumulative reward.

Pi is a policy function that defines how a software agent behaves for each possible state of its environment. This function generates a policy map, showcasing the probability of an agent taking a given action, allowing developers to determine which actions lead to higher cumulative rewards.

If you’d like to know more on this super interesting topic, we also have a consensus piece on the best books on AI and machine learning, with some of the best references available for your studies.


In statistics, Pi refers to the population proportion: a parameter that describes a percentage value associated with a population. A quick example of how to use Pi in this context would be that if your groceries are 50% vegetables, you have a 0.5 population proportion (or Pi) of vegetables.


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Unicode Chars for Copy/Paste:


Copy any of the symbols above to use Rho in your text or code. 

You can also type Rho in Word or Excel by setting your Numpad Lock ON, pressing down the Alt key, and typing 929 (uppercase) or 961 (lowercase) on your Numpad.

For the ancient Greeks, Rho meant outflow, matching its lowercase form as this symbol shows a vertical line that flops over at the top and back to itself, somewhat similar to a breaking wave. Some scholars also believe that the Greek letter Rho refers to a needle-head or the eye-of-the-needle and how questions pierce the veil of ignorance.

Software Engineering and Programing

Pollard’s Rho is a prime factorization algorithm that quickly splits large composite numbers into small prime factors. Implementing the Rho algorithm in languages such as C++, C#, Java, JavaScript, and Python has great educational value for students when learning about the O notation.

In APL (a symbolic-centered programming language), Rho is a symbol that acts as an operator (or a dyadic function depending on how it is used in code) to shape and reshape an array’s components and its dimensions.


Rho refers to the statistical dependence between the rankings of two variables. Also known as Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, it assesses the strength and direction (negative or positive) of a relationship between two variables.

Rho is also considered a reliable Options Risk Metric for at-the-money options with long times until expiration, representing the rate of change between an option’s value and a 1% change in the interest rate.


The most common use for Rho in science is to convey the density (volumetric mass density) of a substance: its mass per unit volume. The lowercase Rho denotes mass, air, charge density, and resistivity. Additionally, Rho proteins are generally recognized for coordinating the actin cytoskeleton and regulating cell growth in genetics.


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Unicode Chars for Copy/Paste:


Copy any of the symbols above to use Sigma in your text or code. 

You can also type Sigma in Word or Excel by setting your Numpad Lock ON, pressing down the Alt key, and typing 931 (uppercase), 962 (lowercase), or 963 for its alt lowercase variant on your Numpad.

For the ancient Greeks, Sigma represents the shape of a new moon, but it also means something which has been put together. Even today, Sigma is associated with addition, appearing as the Auto sum symbol in Excel.

Funnily enough, some scholars support the theory that The Romans eventually transformed Sigma into the letter s due to sloppy handwriting (the Latin word for “summa” translated as sum).

Software Engineering and Programing

Six Sigma is the process of producing high and improved quality output. This process has two different methodologies that apply to business and product design, but also six characteristics focused on gathering information, qualitative and quantitative analysis.

The Six Sigma process has notoriously helped many organizations, businesses, project managers, and even software designers produce high-quality results profusely and efficiently.

Math and Data Science

The empirical Rule offers an effective way to account for outliers in Mathematics and statistics. This Rule, also known as the Three Sigma rule, states that every piece of data from a normal data set will fall within three standard deviations of the mean (the average of all of the numbers within the set).


The Three-sigma limits are a statistical calculation where the data are within three standard deviations from a mean, referring to processes that operate efficiently and produce items of the highest quality.


When studying the mechanical behaviors of materials, stress is referenced by the Greek symbol sigma. This physical quantity expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other.

Sigma is particularly important for civil and mechanical engineers when assessing reliable building elements and machine parts for safe infrastructure and resilient machinery.


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Unicode Chars for Copy/Paste:


Copy any of the symbols above to use Tau in your text or code. 

You can also type Tau in Word or Excel by setting your Numpad Lock ON, pressing down the Alt key, and typing 932 (uppercase) or 964 (lowercase) on your Numpad.

The Tau symbol comes from the Phoenician letter Taw and means tension-force or to stretch/extend something. Even though the uppercase Tau is not generally used as a symbol, the lowercase Tau symbol is used in various ways.

The ancient Greeks were fond of connecting metaphysical conceptions (theory) and their physical equivalent in our world. In Stoic Philosophy, Tau is used in the word “tonos” to reference the tension force that holds the universe together.


In neuroscience, the tau proteins are a group of six highly soluble proteins abundant in the central nervous system, which maintains the stability of a cell. Whenever the tau proteins become insoluble, they can be a contributing cause of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease

Software Engineering and Programing

In Python, we can quickly use the value of Tau in our code by using the Math.tau constant, returning an exact value of 15 decimals (6.283185307179586). Furthermore, with the help of cMath.tau constant, we can use Tau to build more complex Mathematical formulas whenever we need to.

Data Science

The Kendall rank correlation coefficient is expressed in statistics through the Greek symbol Tau. This coefficient is used to measure the ordinal association between two measured quantities.

Additionally, the Tau symbol represents the τ test, a non-parametric hypothesis test for statistical dependence based on this coefficient. The tau test allows us to determine whether two variables are statistically dependent and the degree of their relationship.


Tau is noticeably used in Physics to represent the net rotational force in mechanics. This Greek symbol also refers to the turning effect, the moment, and rotational force in a dynamic system.


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Unicode Chars for Copy/Paste:


Copy any of the symbols above to use Upsilon in your text or code. 

You can also type Upsilon in Word or Excel by setting your Numpad Lock ON, pressing down the Alt key, and typing 933 (uppercase) or 965 (lowercase) on your Numpad.

For the ancient Greeks, Upsilon means pure, purified, purifying. This Greek symbol is also the first letter of “Ugieia” (otherwise Hygeia), the immortal Goddess of health and the basis for the word hygiene.


Like many other Greek letters, Upsilon is often used in trigonometry as a variable for angles. It also happens to be one of the most recently developed functions in the historical field of Mathematics. Established in 2016, Upsilon is considered an analogous function to the famous Riemann zeta function, operating complex variables to continue the sum of an infinite series analytically.


In astrophysics and physical cosmology, the mass-to-light ratio is generally designated with the Greek letter Upsilon. On the other hand, in particle Physics, Upsilon corresponds to a quarkonium: a hadronic subatomic particle that’s both neutral and acts as its own antiparticle!


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Unicode Chars for Copy/Paste:


Copy any of the symbols above to use Phi in your text or code. 

You can also type Phi in Word or Excel by setting your Numpad Lock ON, pressing down the Alt key, and typing 934 (uppercase) or 966 (lowercase) on your Numpad.

Phi combines two Greek letters to create its symbol, joining an uppercase Iota and Omicron to reflect the fusion between the notion of the divine with that of an entity. Phi also appropriately reflects a lighted candle, where fire needs animating energy (divine) and an entity (string) to burn or come to be.


Phi is arguably one of the most important Mathematical constants, often used to introduce the students to discrete Mathematics. Its uppercase form often references transformations, as its lowercase symbol indicates angles and complex numbers phases (angle between the real axis and the vector representing the imaginary part).


Ancient Greek Mathematicians first studied the golden ratio because of its frequent appearance in geometry and nature, a concept of proportion that permeated Art and Architecture for many centuries to come. Even today, artists can use the golden ratio to divide lines and rectangles in their work to provide an aesthetically pleasing effect.


Phi refers to the work function in Physics: the energy required by a photon to remove an electron from the surface of a metal.

Chi or Xhi

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Unicode Chars for Copy/Paste:


Copy any of the symbols above to use Chi in your text or code. 

You can also type Chi in Word or Excel by setting your Numpad Lock ON, pressing down the Alt key, and typing 935 (uppercase) or 967 (lowercase) on your Numpad.

For the ancient Greeks, the Chi symbol means foundation, revealing their diagonal method for measuring the foundation of a building. Likewise, Chi or Xi is also used as a cross or crosswise prefix, implying the seamlessly matching philosophical and theological concepts present in ancient Greek philosophy and early Christianity.

The Chi letter has a more metaphysical meaning, related to the ancient Greek belief that every being ascended into the universe from the disorder and confusion of the great unknown.


Chi is one of the most famous Greek symbols in Math, popularized as the unknown variable of an equation or to represent any value in the cartesian plane’s horizontal axis.

The reasons why it was first used as an unknown variable are as mysterious as the meaning that the ancient Greeks gave to this symbol. There’s not a consensus as to why Diophantus (the first Greek Mathematician to introduce the alphabetical unknown) used it in algebraic problem-solving.

Software Engineering and Programing

In Python, a Chi-square distance calculation is a statistical method that generally measures similarity between 2 feature matrices.

Data Science

The Chi-Square test is a statistical procedure for determining the difference between observed and expected data. This test is handy in finding out whether a distinction between two categorical variables is due to chance or a relationship between them.


Chi represents a material’s magnetic susceptibility, which quantifies how badly an object is affected (drawn or repelled) by a magnetic field.


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Unicode Chars for Copy/Paste:


Copy any of the symbols above to use Psi in your text or code. 

You can also type Psi in Word or Excel by setting your Numpad Lock ON, pressing down the Alt key, and typing 936 (uppercase) or 968 (lowercase) on your Numpad.

For the ancient Greeks, Psi means incorporeal (without a body), and it’s no wonder that this symbol represents Psychology: the scientific study of conscious and unconscious phenomena.

Software Engineering and Programing

In computability theory (a branch of Mathematical logic that originated in the 1930s), Psi ψp(x) represents the return value Y of a program P: the first expression of what we know today as the return value.


In virology, the Psi symbol refers to a viral packaging signal, the specific structures of each vRNA that contribute to mediating the packaging of the vRNA into virions (a complete virus particle that consists of an RNA or DNA core with a protein coat).


Psi also refers to Water potential, the potential energy of water per unit volume relative to pure water in reference conditions. Water potential quantifies the tendency of this liquid to move from one area to another due to osmosis, gravity, and mechanical pressure.


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Unicode Chars for Copy/Paste:


Copy any of the symbols above to use Omega in your text or code. 

You can also type Delta in Word or Excel by setting your Numpad Lock ON, pressing down the Alt key, and typing 937 (uppercase) or 969 (lowercase) on your Numpad.

Language historians often dispute the Omega symbol as an original Greek letter. Nevertheless, its meaning is paradoxical, referring to both the end and what brings forth.

Software Engineering and Programing

Asymptotic functions allow us to measure the efficiency of algorithms that don’t depend on machine-specific constants. These functions save us (and our programs) time as it is no longer needed to implement algorithms and then compare their performance.

This process is known as asymptotic analysis, and, in addition to the three main asymptotic functions, there are also two additional ones known as little Omega and big Omega. Little Omega (ω) is a rough estimate of the order of the growth, whereas Big Omega (Ω) may represent the exact order of growth.


Omega is a measure of options pricing, calculated based on two of the standard option Greeks, Delta and Gamma. This set of metrics provides a sense of an options contract’s risk and reward concerning different variables. Not as popular as the other Four Greeks, Omega is mainly used by high-volume options traders.


In the field of Optics, Omega refers to a solid angle, measuring the amount of the field of view from some particular point that a given object covers. Nevertheless, in cinematics and the study of circular motion, Omega is commonly used to represent an object’s angular velocity (how fast an object rotates or revolves relative to another point).

Jesus Aveledo
Design and marketing professional with 5+ years of website development experience. Currently discovering the power of Python in synthesizing content, ideas, and resources for my clients